Artwork by Alfred Joseph Casson,  Mill Lake, Parry Sound

A.J. Casson
Mill Lake, Parry Sound

oil on board
signed lower left; titled on a label on the reverse
9.25 x 11.25 ins ( 23.5 x 28.6 cms )

Auction Estimate: $60,000.00$40,000.00 - $60,000.00

Price Realized $144,000.00
Sale date: June 15th 2022

Dr. Edmund E. Walker, Toronto
By descent to the present Private Collection, Ontario
Paul Duval, “A.J. Casson/ His Life & Works / A Tribute”, Toronto, 1980, page 73 for a similar work entitled “Mill Lake at Parry Sound” (1931)
Paul Duval, “A.J. Casson”, Toronto, 1951, pages 24-25 and page 42 for “October Morning”
Sarah Milroy (editor), “Generations: The Sobey Family & Canadian Art, McMichael Canadian Art Collection”, Kleinburg, 2022, “October Morning” reproduced page 137
A.J. Casson’s style and technique for landscape painting developed in richness and individuality in the 1930s. “Mill Lake, Parry Sound”, executed in 1934, is a preparatory sketch for the monumental canvas of the same year, “October Morning”. Paul Duval praised “October Morning”, sharing that the artist’s method in the composition brought his interpretation of the landscape to a fullness in terms of form and colour. According to Duval, Casson’s “integration of literal observation and aesthetic transformation reached a highly successful meeting in “October Morning”. The keen sense of climatic atmosphere which had always marked his conceptions remains, with an added strength of design and unity of color to underline the mood of awakening day.”

This vibrant oil on board painting was possibly a gift from A.J. Casson to Dr. Edmund E. Walker in the early 1930s, as this illustrious Toronto family held “October Morning” within their collection, acquired by Dr. Walker’s father, Sir Edmund Walker. Sir Edmund Walker (1848-1924) was a founder of the Art Gallery of Toronto (now Art Gallery of Ontario) and became the president of the institution in 1900. He founded the Champlain Society in 1905, which was devoted to the publication of documents related to Canadian history. Walker went on to become chairman of the board of trustees of the National Gallery of Canada in 1913, an office which he held until his death. Having been a long-time proponent of a provincial museum, it was largely through his efforts that the Royal Ontario Museum was established in 1914. In addition to being a great contributor to arts and culture in Ontario, Walker served as the president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce for fifty years. To mark this milestone in 1918, Walker was honoured with an illustrated manuscript and presentation casket, which now resides in the archives of the Royal Ontario Museum.

Dr. Edmund E. Walker (1877-1969), son of Sir Edmund Walker, was both a scientist and an artist. He was an entomologist who discovered a new order of insects, the Grylloblattodea. Dr. Walker served as an Honorary Director of the Royal Ontario Museum from 1931 to 1969 and was awarded the Royal Society of Canada’s Flavelle medal for his scientific achievements. Akin to his father’s ambitions and cultural interests, Dr. Walker valued the attributes of landscape painting, specifically depictions of the rugged beauty of northern Ontario. The Norfolk Arts Centre in Simcoe, Ontario had an exhibition of 35 early paintings by Edmund E. Walker, an artist in his own right.

Sir Edmund Walker placed the Bank of Commerce firmly behind the development of Canada’s north, or the “New Ontario”, as it was known then. The foundation of The Group of Seven and their paintings of the resource-rich landscape of the north was paramount to the development of Ontario. It was natural for the Walker Family to support this movement in Canadian art and acquire artworks by A.J. Casson. “Mill Lake, Parry Sound” was painted during an important period for Casson, soon after the end of his association with the Group of Seven. This sweeping vista filled with rich colour, lush foliage, shimmering light and an expertly rendered sky is a landscape of solitary grandeur. It is a quintessential example of the carefully considered compositions of the beloved Canadian painter.

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Alfred Joseph Casson
(1898 - 1992) Group of Seven, PRCA, OSA, CSPW

Born in Toronto, Ontario, he started art studies at Ryerson School and later under John S. Gordon at the Hamilton Technical School when his family moved to Hamilton. His family moved back to Toronto in 1916 and he worked free lance and studied evenings at the Ontario College of Art, the Toronto Central Technical School under Alfred Howell, and classes under Harry Britton who first taught him watercolour techniques and introduced him to oil painting.

When the young A.J. Casson first took a position as design assistant to Franklin Carmichael at the firm of Rous and Mann, he could not have known the remarkable direction his career would take. The demanding but affable Carmichael became a friend, mentor and sketching companion. In fact, it was Carmichael who introduced Alfred Casson to members of the Group of Seven at Toronto’s Arts and Letters Club. The dedicated artist began to exhibit with the Group and became a natural successor to Frank Johnston when he left to pursue other interests.

He exhibited for the first time with the Ontario Society of Artists in 1921, and in 1923 his canvas “Clearing” was purchased by the National Gallery of Canada. Casson , Carmichael and F. H. Brigden formed the Canadian Society of Painters in Water Colour in 1925 “to encourage and foster the art of watercolour in Canada.” F. B. Housser wrote in the Year Book of Arts in Canada “Carmichael and Casson are painting in watercolours … giving to Canadian landscape a statement in watercolour as bold and untraditional as that which some of their associates have given it in oils.”

Most of Casson’s large canvases were done between 1926 and 1930 when he found his subject matter in the Haliburton Region and Lake Superior areas. It was about 1924 that Casson became interested in the Ontario village. He made many pencilled sketches of structural details which became a valuable reference for his larger studies in oils like “Anglican Church at Magnetawan” completed in 1933 and purchased by the National Gallery of Canada in 1936. In his depiction of the more settled areas of southern Ontario, A.J. Casson was deliberately seeking out subject matter that set his work apart from the preferred material of other Group of Seven members. Alfred Casson’s strong design background shaped a unique painting style, characterized by graceful lines and carefully considered compositions. With the passing of time his style underwent a subtle change in which pattern became an essential element in his work.

In addition to his dedication to excellence in his own work, A.J. Casson was instrumental in the formation of important Canadian art organizations such as the Canadian Society of Painters in Watercolour, the Canadian Group of Painters and the WWII War Artists Program. Vice President and Art Director for Sampson-Matthews Ltd. for almost 20 years, he was responsible for the technical development of programs in connection with reproduction of artists’ works carried out by the National Gallery of Canada, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association and Sampson-Matthews Limited. He did heraldic work which was reproduced by Sampson-Matthews Ltd. including armorial bearings of Canada and a series of landscapes.

There can be no doubt that over a long career, which spanned much of the twentieth century, Alfred Joseph Casson left an indelible mark on the Canadian art landscape.

Source: "A Dictionary of Canadian Artists, Volume I: A-F", compiled by Colin S. MacDonald, Canadian Paperbacks Publishing Ltd, Ottawa, 1977

  • 1898   Alfred Joseph Casson born in Toronto
  • 1912   Studies at Hamilton Technical School under John S. Gordon
  • 1913   Apprenticeship at the Laidlaw Lithography Company in Hamilton, Ont.
  • 1914   Apprenticeship at Commercial Engravers Company
  • 1915   Freelance designer
  • 1915-1917   Studies at Toronto Central Technical College under Alfred Howell
  • 1918-1921   Studies at the Ontario College of Art under J.W. Beatty
  • 1919-1926   Assistant Designer to Franklin Carmichael at the design firm of Rous and Mann Ltd. 
  • 1920   Carmichael introduces Casson to Group of Seven members at Toronto’s Arts and Letters Club
  • 1921   Exhibits for the first time with the Ontario Society of Artists;  accompanies Carmichael on an extended painting trip to Rosseau Lake in the Muskoka district
  • 1922   Exhibits for the first time with the Group of Seven
  • 1923   “Clearing”, is purchased by the National Gallery of Canada; becomes a member of the Ontario Society of Artists
  • 1925   Founding member of the Canadian Society of Painters in Watercolour together with Franklin Carmichael and F.H. Brigden
  • 1926   Becomes a member of the Group of Seven upon the departure of Frank Johnston;  accompanies Franklin Carmichael to the design firm of Sampson-Matthews;  becomes an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts;  buys a car and begins to explore the small villages and hamlets of Southern Ontario
  • 1926-1930   Sketches in the regions of Haliburton and Lake Superior
  • 1928   Sketching trip to Lake Superior with A.Y. Jackson, Lawren Harris and Franklin Carmichael
  • 1933   Co-founds the Canadian Group of Painters after the dissolution of the Group of Seven, following the death of J.E.H. MacDonald
  • 1936   Anglican Church at Magnetawan is purchased by the National Gallery of Canada
  • 1939   Becomes a full member of the RCA
  • 1939-1945  Appointed as a member of Canada’s War Records Committee;  helps to establish the WWII War Artists Program
  • 1940   Elected President of the Ontario Society of Artists
  • 1942   Appointed Art Director of Sampson-Matthews
  • 1946   Appointed Vice-President of Sampson-Matthews
  • 1949   Publishes “The Possibilities of Silk Screen Reproduction” in Canadian Art magazine
  • 1948   Elected President of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts;  receives the Province of Ontario Award
  • 1954   Awarded the Gold Medal for Excellence in Canadian Advertising
  • 1955-1959   Appointed Vice-President of the Art Gallery of Ontario
  • 1957   Retires from Sampson-Matthews in order to pursue painting on a full-time basis;  awarded Gold Medal from the University of Alberta
  • 1967   Awarded Canada’s Silver Centennial Medal
  • 1970   Awarded the Royal Canadian Academy Medal; conferred with an Honourary LL.D. from the University of Western Ontario
  • 1971   Conferred with an Honourary Degree from the University of Saskatchewan
  • 1973   Becomes a Fellow of the Ontario College of Art; awarded the City of Toronto Award of Merit for distinguished public service
  • 1975   Conferred with an Honourary LL.D. from the University of Toronto
  • 1977   Awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal
  • 1979   Awarded the Order of Canada
  • 1980   Conferred with an D.F.A. from Mount Allison University
  • 1982   Conferred with an Honourary LL.D. from McMaster University
  • 1991   Awarded the Order of Ontario
  • 1992   Dies in Toronto at the age of 93